Aspergillosis - fungal infection caused by various species of the genus Aspergillus mold and flowing with chronic toxic and allergic manifestations diflucan-fluconazole.net. When aspergillosis mainly affected bronchopulmonary system and sinuses; at least -. skin, visual system, central nervous system, etc. In patients with low immune reactivity may develop disseminated aspergillosis. The leading role in the diagnosis of aspergillosis play laboratory techniques: microscopy, bakposev, serological tests, PCR. Possible formulation of inhaled and skin-allergy testing. aspergillosis Treatment is carried antifungal agents.
Aspergillosis - a fungal disease, the causative agent of which are the fungi Aspergillus. Aspergillus species may cause a variety of superficial and deep fungal infections internal organs, skin and mucous membranes, so aspergillosis studied across a range of clinical disciplines. Mycology, pulmonology, otolaryngology, dermatology, ophthalmology, etc. Over the last two decades, the frequency of infection aspergillosis in the population has increased by 20 %, which is associated with an increase in the number of patients with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, drug addiction and HIV infection, the irrational use of antibiotics, the use of immunosuppressive drugs in oncology and transplantation. All this confirms the growing relevance of aspergillosis.
Agents of aspergillosis in humans may act following types of mold genus Aspergillus: A. flavus, A. Niger, A. Fumigatus, A. nidulans. A. terreus, A. clavatus. Aspergillus species are aerobic and heterotrophic; can grow at temperatures up to 50 ° C, continuously maintained during freezing and drying. In the environment, Aspergillus are ubiquitous - in soil, air, water. Favourable conditions for growth and reproduction of Aspergillus are in ventilation and shower systems, air conditioners and humidifiers, old things and books, damp walls and ceilings, long stored foods, agricultural and indoor plants, and others.
Infection aspergillosis most commonly occurs by inhalation by inhalation of dust containing fungal mycelium. Those most at risk of the disease are subject to agricultural workers, workers of Cotton and weavers, millers, as well as breeders of pigeons as the pigeons, birds are more likely to get sick aspergillosis. The emergence of fungal infection contributes to infection during invasive procedures:. Bronchoscopy, sinus puncture, endoscopic biopsy, and others can not be ruled pin aspergillosis transmission path through the damaged skin and mucous membranes. Alimentary infection is also possible when using Aspergillus contaminated food (eg, chicken).
In addition to the exogenous Aspergillus infection, cases autozarazheniya (activation of fungi that live on the skin, mucous membrane of the throat and airways) and transplacental infection. By incidence of aspergillosis risk factors include immune deficiencies of any origin, chronic respiratory diseases (COPD, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, asthma and others.), Diabetes mellitus, goiter, burn injury; antibiotics, corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy. Cases of fungal infections of mixed etiology, caused by different types of fungi - Aspergillus, Candida, actinomycetes.
The most studied to date form of disease is pulmonary aspergillosis. The initial stages of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis disguised clinic tracheobronchitis or bronchitis. Patients worried cough grayish color, coughing up blood, weakness, weight loss. With the spread of the lungs, pulmonary form of a mycosis - Aspergillus pneumonia. In the acute phase marked the wrong type of fever, chills, cough with abundant muco-purulent sputum, shortness of breath, chest pain. When breathing from the mouth can feel the smell of mold. With the help of microscopic examination of sputum found colonies of mycelium and spores of Aspergillus.
Patients with concomitant diseases of the respiratory system (pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, cysts, lung abscess, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, hypoplasia, histoplasmosis) often formed lung aspergilloma - encapsulated hearth containing fungal hyphae, fibrin, mucus and cellular elements. The death of patients with aspergilloma can occur as a result of pulmonary hemorrhage or asphyxia.
Aspergillosis of upper respiratory tract may occur in the form of external or otitis media, rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. In Aspergillus otitis first appears hyperemia, scaling and itching of the skin of the outer ear canal. Over time, the ear canal is filled with loose grayish mass containing filaments and spores. Possible spread of aspergillosis in the eardrum, accompanied by a sharp stabbing pain in the ear. We describe the destruction of the maxillary and sphenoid sinus, ethmoid, the transition fungal invasion into orbit. Eye aspergillosis may take the form of conjunctivitis, blepharitis ulcerative, nodular keratitis, dacryocystitis, blefaromeybomita, panoftalmita. Frequent complications in the form of deep corneal ulcers, uveitis, glaucoma, vision loss.
Aspergillosis of the skin characterized by the appearance of erythema, infiltration, brownish flakes, mild itching. In case there is a deformation of onychomycosis nail plates, color change to dark yellow or brownish-greenish, the crumbling of the nail. Aspergillosis occurs under the guise of the digestive tract erosive gastritis or enterocolitis: for it is typical musty smell from the mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Generalized form of aspergillosis develops when Aspergillus hematogenous dissemination from a primary focus in the various organs and tissues. In this form of the disease occur Aspergillus endocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis; brain abscesses, kidneys, liver, myocardium; bone disease, gastrointestinal tract, upper respiratory tract; Aspergillus sepsis. Mortality from septic forms of aspergillosis is very high.
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