Anthracosis - lung caused by inhalation of coal dust particles and characterized by the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Anthracosis symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue) are progressive in nature it's cool buy prednisone 10mg. When the diagnosis takes into account the professional history, data imaging and computed tomography lung, spirometry, blood gas analysis. Treatment anthracosis primarily symptomatic: receiving bronchodilators, steroids, chest massage, oxygen therapy. Patients anthracosis shown surveillance pulmonologist and Pathology; in some cases - a change of profession.
Anthracosis - pneumoconiosis that develops with prolonged exposure to coal dust lung tissue. For lung damage caused by the inhalation of carbonaceous dust (karbokoniozam) are anthracosis, grafitoz and particulate pneumoconiosis. Their number anthracosis is the most common occupational disease. Develops among workers engaged in coal mining and with large production experience. Depending on the working conditions and the duration of exposure to coal dust, anthracosis prevalence among the miners is from 12 to 50%. Progression anthracosis can cause severe lung damage and the development of cardio-respiratory failure, loss of ability to work, which accounts for its medical and social significance of occupational diseases and pulmonology.
The main mechanisms for determining the risk of developing coal pneumoconiosis are: the concentration of coal dust in the ambient air, the experience of industrial hazards, as well as the presence of predisposing factors. Usually anthracosis striking miners, workers of mining and processing plants and coking plants, worked in the coal industry for at least 15-20 years. Most earlier clinical and radiographic changes develop in individuals associated with the production of anthracite, at least - breeds that have a lower degree of coalification (coal, lignite). Along with anthracosis workers of the coal industry can meet other pneumoconiosis, first of all, silicosis or anthracosilicosis, t. To. Coal mine dust is often silicon dioxide impurity.
Additional factors that increase the risk of developing anthracosis serve concurrent smoking, non-compliance with labor protection requirements, a violation of the process of coal mining, chronic respiratory diseases and others.
Tiny particles of coal dust enter the body by inhalation. A certain part of them is deposited on the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx, trachea and bronchi, and through movement of the cilia of ciliated epithelium and mucus produced is removed outside. At high concentration exposure and intensive dust particles penetrate into the lower airways, which are found in the lumen of the alveoli, alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. With shock lymph coal particles can be transferred to the regional (bronchial, tracheal, bifurcation) and other lymph glands. When anthracosis lung surface acquires a characteristic mottled appearance and gray-black. The constant irritation of the bronchi coal dust causes the development of chronic bronchitis, catarrh, and the deposition of masses of coal in the interstitial tissue - desquamative interstitial pneumonia with subsequent outcome in cirrhosis of the lungs.
Based on the pathological, clinical and radiological changes in lung tissue are 2 forms of pneumoconiosis of coal: Spotted anthracosis (benign anthracotic fibrosis) and progressive massive fibrosis of the lungs.
Current spotted anthracosis slowly progressive and relatively beneficial. The lungs are single local pockets of coal pigmentation as "anthracite spots." Fibrosis of lung tissue is weak; Nevertheless, due to terminal bronchioles ectasia develops local centrilobular emphysema. A variation of this form is knotted spotted anthracosis in which nodules up to 1 cm in the lung tissue radiologically determined.
Progressive massive fibrosis of the lung usually develops in patients with intercurrent complications (eg pulmonary tuberculosis). The etiology of this form anthracosis not ruled out a role of immune mechanism of lung tissue damage - proof of this is the frequent combination of coal pneumoconiosis and rheumatoid arthritis, called Kaplan syndrome and Colin. Progressive massive fibrosis is unfavorable course; in the final of this form anthracosis changes the structure of the lung tissue of the type "honeycomb" ( "honeycombing" t. n.), formed pulmonary heart. The cause of death of patients, usually becomes cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
Anthracosis - a slowly progressive disease, but its late detection or accession complications predetermine poor outcome. Spotted anthracosis is more suitable for comparison with progressive massive fibrosis. At the stage I patients anthracosis keep working; in stage II, and III is uncertain estimate for the operability. Patients with anthracosis should be under the close supervision of a pulmonologist and Pathology; if necessary consult phthisiatrician.
Prevention consists of coal pneumoconiosis of engineering and technical measures aimed at reducing the release of dust during tunneling work, minimize the exposure of workers to the coal dust, the use of personal protective equipment (respirators). Persons who are exposed to a carbon-containing dust should undergo periodic medical examination.
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